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  • Hazrat Shah Ahmed Saeed ????????? ???? (by Tahir Ghaffari) PDF Print E-mail
    Written by Anwar-un-Nabi (?????????? ??? ???? ????)   
    Thursday, 12 December 2013 15:19

    Hazrat Sh?h Ahmad Saeed Mujaddidi F?r?qi Dehlavi then Madani (1802-1860), may Allah sanctify his soul, was one of the most popular Naqshbandi shaykhs of India, and the spiritual heir of Hazrat Shah Ghul?m Ali Dehlavi .

    He was born in 1217 AH (1802 CE) in R?mpur, India. He is the elder son of Hazrat Shah Ab? Saeed Mujaddidi Dehlavi who was the first spiritual successor to Hazrat Shah Ghul?m Ali Dehlavi.

    His father was first a disciple of Hazrat Shah Darg?hi, a famous shaykh at that time, and would often bring his little son to the shaykhs company. When Shah Abu Saeed went to Hazrat Shah Ghulam Ali Dehlavi for seeking advanced stages of Wil?yah (sainthood), Shah Ahmed Saeed also accompanied him. Thus he entered the service of Shah Ghulam Ali from his young age.

    He was young and was still seeking Islamic education. Hazrat Shah Ghulam Ali advised him that one should combine the Haal (spirituality) with Qaal (literary education), so you should learn the external knowledge from the scholars and join the Halqa when free. Thus he advanced his external education and internal/spiritual training together. He would learn the Islamic knowledge, specially the science of Hadith from his fathers uncle Shah Sir?j Ahmed Mujaddidi and other scholars. Meanwhile he would also continue seeking his spiritual training from Shah Ghulam Ali who trained him in all the prevalent Sufi methods of the time.

    Finally, when he completed the spiritual training and reached the highest stages of Wil?yah, his shaykh gave him authority in seven Sufi orders, mainly the Naqshbandi-Mujaddidi tar?qa. He was just 22 years old when his shaykh departed from this world on 22 Safar 1240 AH (October 1824). His father Shah Ab? Saeed had been appointed by the shaykh as his ultimate heir who succeeded the spiritual movement and the noble kh?nq?h Mazhariya. After striving to train thousands of disciples for about ten years, his father left for Hajj and passed away in the return journey, in the night of 1st Shawwal 1250 AH (31 January 1835). His body was brought to Delhi and finally laid to rest in this sublime khanqah. Hazrat Shah Ahmed Saeed became the next successor to his shaykh after the demise of his father, and inherited the khanqah and all the followers.

    Migration to Madinah

    During his life, most of India was captured by the British who had reached close to Delhi where he lived. The Muslim scholars declared India as Dar al-Harb (legally, in state of war) and allowed for Jihad against the British. The uprising of 1857 was a key event in the history of India, in which the capital Delhi was taken over by the British and the long rule of Muslim kings over India came to an end. This uprising was supported by a fatwa (legal ruling) of the Islamic scholars, and one of them was Shah Ahmed Saeed himself. Indeed, he was the first to affirm it and sign it.

    This fatwa made the British rulers his foes, and he had to flee from Delhi in order to evade the oppression and injustice of the new rulers who wanted to persecute him. He decided to migrate to the holy city of Madinah. During the journey, he stayed for 18 days at khanqah M?s? Za? Shar?f, established by his chief khalifa H?j? Dost Muhammad Qandahari in district Der? Ism??l Kh?n (presently in Pakistan). There he declared Haji Dost Muhammad his successor and made him the custodian of kh?nqah Mazhariya in Delhi and commanded him to either reside there himself or send a khalifa to take control of it. Haji Dost Muhammad decided to stay at Musa Zai and presented his khalifa Mawlana Rah?m Bakhsh Ajmeri to his shaykh for residing at the Delhi khanqah.

    Finally, from Musa Zai Sharif he left for Makkah and performed Hajj there in 1274 AH (1858). In Rabi al-Awwal 1275 AH (October 1858) he reached Madinah, the city of light.

    During the journey, numerous people did bayah with him including scholars, and his fame reached far and wide. He lived in Madinah for about two years. Thousands of people there did bayah with him. His biographer says that if he had lived there for few more years, number of his murids would have reached hundreds of thousands.

    Children

    Hazrat Shah Ahmed Saeed had four sons and one daughter:

    1. Hazrat Shah Abdur-Rasheed Mujaddidi
    2. Hazrat Shah Abdul-Hameed Mujaddidi
    3. Hazrat Shah Muhammad Umar Mujaddidi
    4. Hazrat Shah Muhammad Mazhar Mujaddidi
    5. His daughter Roshan-r?, may Allah be pleased with them all.

    His Khulafa

    Eighty names from his khulafa are reported by his son Shah Muhammad Mazhar in the book Man?qib-e-Ahmadiya. Some of the prominent names are presented here.

    1. Hazrat Khw?j? H?j? Dost Muhammad Qandah?ri , his chief khalifa, died 22 Shawwal 1284 AH (February 1868)
    2. Hazrat Sh?h Abdul-Ghan? F?r?q? Mujaddid? (born 4 Shaaban 1234 AH, died 7 Muharram 1296 AH / 3 December 1878), his real brother
    3. Hazrat Sh?h Muhammad Umar F?r?q? Mujaddid?, his son
    4. Hazrat Sh?h Muhammad Mazhar F?r?q? Mujaddid?, his son. He was Shaykh of Maulana Mur?d al-Manzilv? al-Makk? who translated the letters of Im?m Rabb?n? Shaykh Ahmad Sirhind? into Arabic.
    5. Hazrat Shah Irsh?d Hussain Mujaddid? R?mpuri
    6. Hazrat Mawlana Wali an-Nabi Mujaddidi R?mpuri
    7. Maulana Hab?b-Allah Mult?n?, who accompanied him in Hajj
    8. Maulana Sayyid Abul-Q?sim Hasvi (d. 1266 AH), author of Ma?thir al-Abr?r
    9. Sh?h Abdus-Sal?m Hasvi, son of Sayyid Abul-Q?sim Hasvi

    He passed away on 2nd Rabi al-Awwal 1277 AH (18/19 September 1860) in Madinah and was buried in the graveyard Jannat-ul-Baqi alongside the sacred tomb of Sayyidina Usm?n Ghani, may Allah be pleased with him. His Janazah prayer (funeral) was attended by a huge crowd, and the people of Madinah said we have never witnessed this many people attending a funeral before.

    His writings

    Hazrat Shah Ahmed Saeed was an author and wrote the following books:

    Handwriting of Shah Ahmed Saeed Mujaddidi

    Handwriting of Shah Ahmed Saeed Mujaddidi, Arabic, from the book Asb?t al-Mawlid wal-Qiy?m

    1. Saeed al-Bay?n F? Mawlid Sayyid al-Ins wal-J?n (???? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????), Urdu, about the Mawlid-un-Nabi (M?l?d in Urdu).
    2. Az-Zikr al-shar?f F? Athb?t al-Mawlid al-Mun?b (????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????), Persian, also about the Mawlid
    3. Athb?t al-Mawlid wal-Qiy?m (????? ?????? ???????), Arabic, about Mawlid, written in refutation of a book written by Molvi Mahboob Ali Jafri
    4. Al-Faw?id az-Z?bita F? Athb?t ar-R?bita (??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????), Persian
    5. Al-Anh?r al-Arba? Dar Bay?n Sal?sil-e-Arba? (??????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?????), Persian, describing the spiritual lessons of four Sufi orders: Naqshbandi, Mujaddidi, Q?dri and Chishti.
    6. Al-Haqq al-Mub?n F? al-Radd Al? al-Wahh?biyy?n (???? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????), written in refutation of the Wahh?bi sect, a newly emerged cult in the Arabia whose influence had reached India at that time.
    7. 137 of his letters collected by his chief khalifa H?j? Dost Muhammad Qandah?ri, and recently published under the name Tuhf? Zaww?riy?. Many other letters have also survived but are not included in this collection.

    Sources

    1. Maq?m?t Mazhar? , Urdu Translation by Muhammad Iqbal Mujaddidi, Urdu Science Board Lahore, Second edition, 2001
    2. Tazkirat al-Sulah? , Urdu, by Maulana Muhammad Hasan Jan Sirhindi
    3. Biography in Urdu by Mukhtar Ahmed Khokhar, published in Attahir

    Links

    1. Shah Ahmad Saeed Mujaddidi and the Indian Wahhabism (a discussion of the response of Shah Ahmad Saeed to the then newly emerged Wahhabism in India)
    2. Al-Mutamad wa al-Muntaqad by Allama Fazl Rasool Qadri (Arabic), containing a foreword written by Shah Ahmad Saeed Mujaddidi (page 6)
    3. Saif-ul-Jabb?r by Maulana Fazal Rasool Qadri, 1973 , containg an article by Maulana Raza Ali Naqshbandi Ban?rasi, a murid of Shah Ahmad Saeed, about the conflict between Sunni scholars (including his shaykh) and the Wahhabi scholars (page 211)
    4. Tuhf? Zaww?riy?, letters of Shah Ahmad Saeed Mujaddidi, Urdu translation
    5. Arba Anh?r by Shah Ahmad Saeed Mujaddidi (Persian)
    6. Tahqeeq-ul-Haqq-ul Mubeen Fi Ajwibat Masail Arbaeen (Persian and Urdu)

    Notes

    Published inMaktabah.org, by Tahir Ghaffari

    Last Updated on Saturday, 14 December 2013 03:03
     
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